It's in those moments when you're walking down the street, finishing up the last set of a workout, or taking a dump, that brilliance strikes. As always, disagreements and opinions are very welcome. Essays marked with an asterisk (*) are technical, often analyses of scientific papers I've found interesting.

If unsure what to read, try War and Business, Falsifiability, or Welcome to the Future.

The paper Controlling the False Discovery Rate via Knockoffs by Barber and Candès in 2014 is, in my opinion, a great example of statistical theory at its best. In it, they present a new way to identify causal covariates in high dimensional settings. Put more simply, if you have 10,000 genes potentially contributing to a disease, how do you identify which ones are most causally important, given all sorts of correlations between the genes, known, and otherwise? Minimizing the false discovery rate (FDR) of causal factors is crucial in fields ranging from the obvious (natural sciences like genetics) to the subtle (A/B testing web designs at big tech companies). Their new method for doing so is intuitive, and in some sense, obvious (in hindsight). That's how you know it's the real deal; a graduate student in statistics tells me it's the sort of thing that will be a standard part of inference courses in 30 years time. Here, we take this paper apart, studying what the core contribution is, how the authors might have come up with it, why it's important, and the new questions posed in the field (high dimensional inference) as a result. With that, let's begin.


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One of the biggest determinants of whether I go deeper into economics or not will be how seriously I take the empirical results that populate the literature. I'd like to use this piece to dig into a few examples of seminal work in the social sciences, by seminal authors (think Chetty, Kremer, Duflo), and think carefully about the mathematical assumptions their models make, the confidence I have in their results (how much I would be willing to bet on them being reproduced on demand, tomorrow), and the limits of empiricism in complex, adaptive systems like economies. This survey will involve everything from thinking about how much deviations from distributional independence affect predictions to whether use of p-values makes sense in context and reflects true believability, in the Bayesian sense of the word, and more. It will also involve some allusions to, and analysis of, Nassim Taleb's critique of social scientists and their methods.
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[TODO: This isn't very clear.]

When living in the Bay Area and seeing what people need to know to build interesting things in various fields, I started to believe that most of what you learn in college is (for most people) useless, and that if you purely optimizing for vocational expertise you're better off taking the foundational courses in your field and then leaving school. My attitude on this has shifted slightly. I maintain that the above stance is, as stated, probably accurate, but I also now appreciate where this thesis is incomplete.

Where I Was Wrong

The initial premise of my argument was that learning new material is only useful insofar as it does one or more of these things.

  1. Stretches your cognitive limits (eg. Galois theory)
  2. Teaches you material you will directly use in the future (eg. intro CS)
  3. Is fascinating enough that you would regret not studying it (eg. Quantum Mechanics)
In fact, there's a fourth major reason you'd benefit from a class: to build "technical maturity" in a specific field.

Technical Maturity, Defined

This means understanding the foundational modes of thought of the field well enough that you could easily teach yourself adjacent material in the field. The "in a specific field" caveat is important because it do not think that taking a hard graduate course on, say, randomized algorithms will improve your ability to learn financial economics or solid-state chemistry by making you "generally smarter." I think humans are too bad at applying knowledge across domains (even related ones) for that to happen. Instead, what I mean is that taking a grad course on randomized algorithms will help you learn computational complexity theory, algorithmic game theory, and probability theory. In other words, fields that have substantial overlap in content/keywords, and not just "modes of thinking." I elaborate on this, analogizing it with graph theory and giving examples, below.

Knowledge as Graph Theory

To understand what I mean by "technical mastery," think of knowledge as comprised of nodes in a graph. Each tid-bit of knowledge constitutes a node, and the connections between them are the edges. For example, a class about line and surface integrals over vector fields would create a new node on the graph, linking it to, say, electromagnetism from one's physics class, which are prime examples of line integrals that have physical meaning. That would be an edge between the two nodes.

Why is this relevant? The contention that many champions of the liberal arts have is that studying challenging topics in broad contexts makes one "generally smarter" and improve one's "ability to learn," in generality. This is NOT what I mean by technical maturity. This claim of theirs, in the context of our knowledge graph, is claiming that a node about commutative groups from abstract algebra, or the portrayal of feminism in Austen's Pride and Prejudice has edges going to things that people do on their jobs; say, writing code or hiring employees. I think there is a wealth of evidence supporting the fact that humans are very poor at transferring knowledge across domains, even closely related ones. Therefore, this "liberal arts as building critical thinking skills" school of thought, I see as pretty much baloney.

But they're on to something. Instead, I claim, knowing about, say, commutative groups is useful for learning molecular representations in chemistry (think of these topics as knowledge nodes, I'm claiming most people would be able to connect the two). Indeed, it's quite different from abstract algebra, but has clear and direct applications of group theory and so is similar enough for meaningful transfer to happen. In other words, not as different to abstract algebra as, say, doing corporate taxes in Excel. Just different enough. Similarly, knowing about the portrayal of feminism in Austen (again, think of this as a node) really could concievably be directly useful when studying the Suffragete movement because, again, they're different yet similar enough.

Therefore what I mean for technical maturity is comfort around a set of keywords. In abstract algebra, one keyword might be "symmetric structure" and in feminist studies one might be "intersectional theory." Having heard these words in other contexts -- even very different ones -- adds value and builds "technical maturity." However, groups and feminist theory is too far from writing code or drafting speeches to reasonably possibly have any keyword overlap.

A Concrete Example

In the fall of my freshman year, I took my first rigorous math class. It studied linear algebra from an abstract perspective. One of the things we learned about were unitary operators, which are linear transformations that preserve inner product structure. During the winter break after that semester, I perused a textbook on quantum computation. And in quantum computing, the unit of logic/computation is the idea of a quantum gate, itself a linear transformtion that takes some input and maps it to some output. Being a linear transformation, we represent such logic gates as matrices, and they operate on vector inputs.

One thing that the author of the textbook really emphasized and spent a good amount of time explaining was why we used unitary operators for our logic gates. Evidently, he thought most people reading the book would find that unmotivated. But because I was lucky to take a relatively abstract linear algebra course and had taken a class on probability beforehand, it didn't need any explanation: unitary operators preserve inner products, and random variables are vectors. If you want to ensure the probabilities in the vectors coming in AND leaving the linear transformation (quantum logic gate), using a unitary operator is the obvious choice, since they preserve the inner product (sum of probabilities) of their input. This is the key point: taking the class on abstract linear algebra and one on probability firmly planted nodes (unitary operators, random variables as vectors), and the new topic I was learning (quantum logic gates) had enough keywords in common that I could reasonably create new edges between these knowledge nodes, on the fly. This is the crux of technical maturity: increasing your threshold for what is "obvious".

What Might This Look Like In Practise?

If you see college mostly as I do -- a 4-year course on "learning to think like an X" for many different X (mathematician, programmer, physicist, economist, statistician, historian, psychologist), you should optimize for taking difficult, foundational courses in many fields. It's important to emphasize that by "foundational" I don't mean introductory. For example, I do not think taking an introductory CS course or two suffices to "learn to think like a computer scientist." Instead, take intermediate/advanced courses in algorithm design and operating systems to get those gains.

At Harvard, you need to take 12-16 courses in a field and 32 courses overall to graduate with a degree in that field. What if, instead, you took the hardest/meatiest 6/12 in a several related fields? In math, perhaps that includes group theory, rings and fields, real and complex analysis, differential geometry. In physics perhaps classical and quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and thermodynamics? In economics, maybe the intermediate micro/macro sequence alongside game theory, economic history, political economy. In CS, algorithms and operating systems, programming paradigms, complexity theory and compilers. You'd get 80% of the value of 3-4 different undergraduate degrees, and more importantly be equipped to at least understand parts of the research frontier in each field. Teaching yourself would become much easier, and you wouldn't really be an outsider to any of the fields.

The obvious caveat here is if you're set on spending your life exploring and deepening a specific field. If you want to be a mathematical physicist, ignore my advice. Go ahead and take quantum field theory and Lie algebra at the expense of understanding how economists or computer scientists think. That is the price you pay for mastery. And that's fine. But most people are quite as pointed in their goals, and so my thoughts are probably more relevant for them (and myself).

To summarize, I think that building technical maturity in multiple fields equips you with the ability to learn new things in those specific fields (unlike the claims of the pure-liberal-arts charlatans, who claim it builds critical thinking in general). And this manifests itself as deep comfort in novel sitatuations (again, in the fields you've cultivated maturity in only) which leads to very fast learning and growth of knowledge graphs. Ultimately, the point of college is to set down as many nodes as you can in as many diverse fields, constrainted by the fact that you want node density within any specific field (ie. part of your knowledge graph) to be high enough that they roughly approximate/sample the entire space so you can learn new things in new fields and slot them into the context of existing knowledge.

This mostly explains the big difference I saw between technical college graduates and high-school dropouts in the Valley -- the college graduates felt comfortable in novel situations because they knew their graphs were wide and dense. The high-school dropouts mostly had no nodes to use as reference points from which to grow their graph, and so struggled to keep up with new material. Of course, this does not always hold; you can create these graphs outside of the academy and most people in the academy fail to do a good job at creating these graphs at all. But for me, school seems to work well for this, so I'm happy I'm here, for now.

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Finding algorithms for fast matrix multiplication is one of those rare problems that both 1) doesn't require advanced material to have a go at, and is therefore amenable to attack by measly undergraduates (though the research frontier makes heavy use of sophisticated ideas from abstract algebra), and 2) is vitally important for myriad applications, from machine learning to computer graphics. This piece is my attempt at outlining the current state of the art.

We begin with naive multiplication and make some systems optimizations to see how fast we can make it, then try Strassen's algorithm -- the most commonly used algorithm in practise -- and then try to understand, and implement, more esoteric algorithms like the Coppersmith-Winograd algorithm. We finish off by thinking about what approaches are likely to work, and even trying to come up with heuristics ourselves and seeing how well they do compared to the current state-of-the-art.




First Principles

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The 2012 paper by Alex Krizhevsky et al. in which he implements a deep convolutional neural network for image recognition, is perhaps the most seminal academic paper that has been writtein in the last few decades, full stop. It started the "deep learning revolution." Despite this, it's interesting to note that most of it's contributions are not novel.

It was not the first paper to show how deep networks can significantly outperform traditional neural nets for tasks like image recognition. A paper by Ciresan et al. (2011) had already done that. It was not the first paper to show how GPUs can used to train nets much faster than CPUs. Ciresan's paper also was written in CUDA to exploit GPU support. And of course neither has a claim to originality as far as the concept of convolution in image recognition is concerned; Yann Lecun (2018 Turing) came up with the idea of a CNN in 1989! I AlexNet's success is an example of "incrementalism as discontinuity" innovations. By this, I mean that it has no substantive novel contribution as far as theory is concerned, but makes incremental improvements on existing ideas, combining several important existing ideas (depth, GPUs, dropout regularization) in a way that makes it pass an important threshold. The fact that AlexNet classified over 10% more images in the ImageNet challenge than the runner up is key because that meant it passed the "threshold" for computer vision being practicable. Being the first to cross that threshold (via a well placed incremental improvement), its architecture became ubiquitous, instantly. Alex Krizhevsky is now immortal because of this.

In this piece, we're going to pore over every page of the paper and see how the authors might have come up with the ideas, and what goes into leaps of technical innovation that are so great that other innovations in the future become analogized to them. For example, when DeepMind's AlphaFold 2 surpassed the 90% protein classification threshold in 2021, it was called the "ImageNet/AlexNet moment of biology." That's high praise. With that, we begin.


As I become more interested in economics and ponder the trade-offs associated with a career in academic economics and, say, the high-technology industry, one thing that keeps coming to mind is the notion of "falsifiability" in a job. I define it as the ability to see clear and immediate cause-and-effect between the work you do and associated outcomes on the world that are a direct consequence. For example, medicine has falsifiability; people trust doctors because if a doctor is not good at their job, people will die and it will be clear to everyone. Similarly, business owners have falsifiability: there is an easy way to tell if you're doing your job right--see if you're making a profit. A business owner always runs the risk of going out of business. And they own that risk.

This isn't building up to a criticism of the academy. On the contrary: mathematicians and physicists have falsifiability, too. If your proof of a proposition is incorrect, it will be clear to everyone and unambiguous that you have failed at proving the proposition. If your theory of gravitation yields bad predictions for how a projectile or planet will behave, one can simply conduct an experiment and see that your theory is manifestly wrong. It's not just the presence of clear right and wrong or lack of ambiguity, it is also the ownership of risk and coupling of cause and effect in one's job.

One of the reasons I've become entranced with the study of economics is because it's the rare subject that requires a deep understanding of a variety of fields. A successful economist must have a near-professional working understanding of mathematics, statistics, programming, but also history, politics, philosophy. It's the rare field where studying measure theory and reading Hamlet can both be reasonably argued to be relevant to your job. And it's really impressive to see someone go from proving a difficult theorem on a whiteboard to making a moving speech about the future of a society. Finally, I'm convinced it's possible to have an enormous scope of impact when doing your job right. For example, watching Michael Kremer (2019 Nobel) talk about his work on de-worming showcased to me how his experiments in developing countries gave strong evidence that de-worming policies in primary schools can have huge returns in enabling students to be healthy enough to stay in school for the long haul. As a direct consequence of the work of him and his collaborators, hundreds of millions of students are benefiting from a policy that might have made the difference between them getting a high school education, and not. That, is falsifiability.

My problem with economics is that such examples of falsifiability are far and few between. It often feels like economists are commentators on the side-lines of a football match making strong comments about the performance of players, where they themselves would struggle to play against a talented middle-schooler. When an innovation economist makes strong claims about the conditions required for innovation and about the traits a successful innovator should have, it makes one think: if you truly are correct, why don't you act on this knowledge and start a successful research lab yourself? In other words, because the study of societies is so complicated, with so many moving parts, it's easy to conjure up an explanation for why your hypothesis was incorrect, and difficult to really know if you were, unambiguously, right, or wrong.

In Good Economics For Hard Times, the authors point out that medical professionals have very high trust ratings by the public, and economists very low trust ratings. I think this is because of falsifiability. A doctor owns the risk they run from the predictions they make. If they predict a tumor being benign, and it's malignant, someone dies. If an economist predicts a causal mechanism between a certain tax policy and patent rates, they are never held accountable because they can always behind the shroud of "further study is needed", even if policies based on that research might have cost their country decades in patent-years worth of innovation. In some sense, it's as if the "doctors of the economy", who have potentially the most leverage, are held the least accountable and taken the least seriously.

As a direct consequence, surprisingly little economics research makes its way into policy because, as Banerjee and Duflo point out, "economists are not in the business of futurology". This is my problem. If economics isn't meant to make any predictions about the future, what use is it? The entire point of science is to understand underlying mechanisms using the scientific method, and then use that understanding to make falsifiable predictions about the future, and be held accountable for those predictions. Anything else is, as my father puts it, "intellectual masturbation". In short, futurology is the very point of any scientific discipline. It is the raison d'etre, it is the holy grail, it is the single source of truth.

And so if I opt not to pursue economics in the academy, you'll know why. I want to be held accountable for the work I do.

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Smil is a profilic author on energy economics and history, and his work is remarkably well evidenced and broad in its scope. His books are some of the best works of nonfiction I've read, where Energy and Civilisation literally changed how I look at the world. In this short piece, I'll try to articulate some areas of disagreement, where I think he's wrong, without reducing my stance into the sort of blind techno-optimism that is pervasive in 2020 Silicon Valley. Given below are some broad and strong claims he makes in either EaC or Creating the Twentieth Century. Each claim is either mostly unsubstantiated, or just a flat out an opinion disguised as fact. NOTE: CTTC is the title of the book, but I use it to refer to the group of innovations he discusses in the book, innovations made from 1867-1914 (Haber process, x-rays, automobiles, etc) that he believes are far more impactful and epochal than the late computer industry.

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For a long time I, like most people, thought that many of the great thinkers of eons past were so great because they were brilliant and had stunning insights that revealed something fundamentally new about the world. This is true, but it presents a deceptive, reductionist about how they became famous. Most of the time, their work got the time of day not on its own merits, as if they simply published it and were lauded as geniuses who'd cemented their place in history henceforth. Many of them displayed startling and shocking amounts of what today we call hustle or resourcefulness. These entrepreneurial qualities are not typically associated with great thinkers, but I believe are central to why these people, and not other equally smart people, went down in history. In short, these people are so great not just of their ability to grapple with the profound, but also because of their ability to navigate the mundane and pedestrian obstacles that encumber modern "entrepreneurs" trying to enact change in the world. This is a list of such examples, added to as I come across them.

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Modern, high-energy, high-tech society really is something to marvel at. Today, we can use artificially intelligent machines to manufacture convincing DeepFakes of politicians and celebrities doing or saying things they didn't. Social media apps are used by billions of people--a level of access that puts them in the august company of institutions like the Catholic Church. What's more, these apps can--and have--influence political action by pulling psychological strings in users' minds, and thereby potentially changing the outcome of international relations and elections. All of human knowledge is accessible to even the poorest villagers, at the tap of a fingertip. Software that started as a web crawler became a search engine and then the planet's de-facto arbiter of truth.

The difficult moral quanderies philosphers toyed with decades ago as mere hypotheticals are now coming to pass. We are living in the future.

We send goods created locally 10,000 miles across the world because it is cheaper to have them refined there and transported all the way back than to process them locally. And we still get those goods on our doorstep, exactly when we want them. It has been many decades since a conflict on the scale of those seen in the early 20th century, with a few lines of code now able to wreak more havoc on nations than armies of men in ages past. Despite living in a vastly more connected and globalized world than ever before, a terrifyingly infectious pandemic has killed less people in many months than cigarettes or car crashes. We have robots stacking shelves in titanic warehouses, welding parts, and helping construct buildings.

For such an advanced civilisation, we are curiously blind in places. In the most advanced nation on the planet, public infrastructure is crumbling. Up to a quarter of roads and bridges are rated unsafe because there isn't enough money to maintain them. Improvements in life expectancy are plateauing, and our grandchildren will suffer under the weight of our environmental negligence. The democracies that have brought unprecedented human literacy and social equality are the very same systems that incentivise politicans to please swing voters in the short term, at the expense of significant, irreversable environmental damage in the long-term. The average member of the American public struggles to multiply single-digit numbers, tell the difference between a country and a continent, or paraphrase a simple argument. And they're overweight. Almost half the American public doesn't "believe" in evolution, and most people who do can't explain what it is!

We are living in the future, yes, but we have not yet fully escaped our past. I wonder what 2120 will look like. I suspect less different than many think.

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Despite technology making it easier than ever before to source materials, inputs, employees from across the world, the most innovative, iconic, and productive groups flock to central hubs. Examples of clusters are Hollywood, Silicon Valley, Wall Street. But other, more niche clusters exist too, and very much influence the trajectory of industries and progress: Boston for biotech, Shenzhen for hardware & electronics, South Germany for automobiles, Southern California for wine, and more. And this is nothing new, historical clusters include 20th century Göttingen and Berlin for theoretical physics, Renaissance Florence for fine art, ancient Athens for philosophy, industrial London for engineering, and more.

This piece is based on an HBR article about the economics of clusters, and I'll draw on some of its content while highlighting the factors I think contribute most to giving clusters a disproportionate edge. I'm slightly biased towards clusters because I moved to SF thinking that the internet makes it as easy to start a successful company in London or Abu Dhabi as in the Valley, only to see firsthand how wrong I was, and how many decades ahead the rest of the world the Valley was.

Historically, competitive advantages came from sourcing better inputs for a lower cost than your competitors. Because the differences in input costs could be such a stark advantage, improvements in knowledge, management and technique weren't as valued, and being close to a port or railway line was an immense advantage, and so companies would cluster around them. As freight and shipping make procuring quality goods from across the world cheap, reliable and quick, the advantages in knowledge, management and technique have become decisive. Clusters having a huge advantage on this front, too, as a consequence of in-person meetings being significantly more effective at inciting progress and action than virtual ones--a fact I conjecture, but one that seems to be empirically true. At a high level, I think the advantages clusters hold in a modern knowledge economy include: lower barriers to entry, process knowledge, peer pressure, agglomeration economies, sophisticated markets, and public investment.

To conclude, I think clusters are one of humanity's most powerful engines for progress. As globalization further increases, I think their importance will only grow--social media led to more college parties, not less, and teleconfering compounded the importance of in-person meetings instead of obviating them. Information technology makes the world more dynamic and knowledge/service based, which in turns gives outsized advantages to those that can easily identify and adapt to new trends and access 'insider' knowledge. It's a positive feedback loop. I'd welcome suggestion on how both legislation and technology can make large cities in developing and developed countries alike potential breeding grounds for clusters.

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Tentative thoughts on cities I've lived in or visited multiple times.

  • Cleveland, OH
  • Quintessential American suburbia. Sprawling yet cozy, uneventful without a small-town feel. Contented.

  • New York City, NY
  • Something for everyone. Brash, no-bullshit attitude in stark contrast to west-coast political-correctness. Absolute cultural melée, and fully worth its reputation.

  • Abu Dhabi, UAE
  • City built from sand dunes, great for children and families but lacking cultural, experiential and intellectual diversity due to its youth.

  • London, UK
  • Perfect. Innovative, but with room for good banter. People take their work seriously, but don't take themselves too seriously. History and character.

  • Delhi, India
  • Slow, lazy, yet immensely hectic in an iconically Indian way. Enormous estates juxtapose mothers begging for starving children. People think in days, not years.

  • San Francisco, CA
  • On paper, utopic. In reality, not quite. Forward-thinking, open-minded people, fast moving culture. Closest to a meritocracy I've seen any city get, but with a subtle lack of intellectual vitality and a unique strain of Silicon Valley pretentiousness.

  • Tokyo, Japan
  • Gigantic, and utterly, utterly civilised. People value community and courtesy without the groupthink of Chinese cities. Meticulous attention to detail, but sadly culturally homogenous.

  • Dubai, UAE
  • A more intense, hedonistic, artificial version of Abu Dhabi. I really respect the government's effort to divserify economy into tourism. Beautiful, but lifeless.

  • Mumbai, India
  • A more intense, dense version of Delhi, its people chase fortune rather than let it come to them. Even the crime is more extreme. Wall Street and Hollywood meet chai and auto-rickshaws.

  • Boston, MA
  • TBD

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    It's interesting to note the similarity between the type of relentless resourcefulness important in war, and in business. The reason the French Republic got enough artillery to fire at the allies at Toulon was because Napoleon personally pulled strings to get more supplies, had new forges build on-site, trained people to themselves train troops on using artillery. An example of the circumstance/skill dichotomy is that the geography of Toulon and the layout of the Allies meant that any fighting was done by artillery, which is what Napoleon happened to be trained in (right person at right place at right time).

    And on the importance of implementation/distribution channels—I would argue that profits are to modern business what war was to nations: mechanisms for propagating/disseminating some radical innovation. Something as revolutionary as the French Republic and its progressive ideals could easily have been stamped out at various points in its infancy, changing the face of the world forever (setting us back 50-100 years!). It succeeded not because of the "correctness" of its ideals, in any absolute sense (ideals which philosophers had come up with long before they were enacted, just like Xerox came up with the graphical computer interface long before it was implemented/distributed by Apple), but because of the enterprising and relentlessness of a few men (like Napoleon) in changing the incumbent landscape enough to allow for introduction, distribution and implementation of these radical new ideas that had been fully fleshed out in theory.

    Importantly, this was done from within the existing infrastructure (fighting wars with other nations that opposed Republicanism). To spread successfully, the new innovation (Republicanism) did not just have to be a superior method of running a state, but also had to be better at winning wars. I see this fragility at birth to also be present in businesses—every household, office, and more, might look different if Jobs hadn’t recognized the potential of the GUI at PARC that one day he visited; just as how the whole world’s methods of government may still be leaning aristocratic, if Napoleon hadn’t been enterprising enough to requisition extra Artillery at Toulon or food for his soldiers at the bridge of Lodi (victories which led directly to him gaining power to implement civic innovations like his Code Napoleon).

    You also see that attempting to scale any major innovation (GUI, Haber process, batillon carré) requires lots of related, ancillary innovations as well as a receptive landscape—think Apple's redefinition of technology in retail via Apple Stores, Carl Bosch at Oppau/Leuna practically inventing the fields of high-pressure and catalytic chemistry, countless small but crucial bills passed under Napoleon. It’s a philosophical question of which you believe to be higher impact work—the invention of a concept (Wozniak, Haber) or its distribution/enactment at scale (Jobs, Bosch). An important caveat when weighing the two is that we usually know very well who was first to implement an innovation at scale, but the question of who was first to conceive with the theory is usually murky and debatable.

    In short, I've changed my opinion on what makes a startup succeed (and its competitors fail). A year ago, I'd tell you it was the novelty of the idea, insightfulness of the founders, and receptiveness of the geography and market at the time. Now, I think that successful founders are measured by very different yardsticks. Their test isn't how novel or unique their idea is, their test isn't how insightful or intelligent they are, and their test isn't whether the market or geography is ready for their cool new idea at that time. They are, instead, testing every hour of every day. They are tested when they hire their first employee--are they charismatic and inspirational enough to motivate and persuade a phenomenal engineer to risk it all to come work for them? They are tested when they are running out of money, and don't know any VCs--can they find a way to get a warm intro to a VC or dazzle investors through some creative stunt? They are tested when their initial customers tell them their product is shit--do they know when to persevere, and when to quit? Do they make the right decision at that point, and at every other pivotal moment that marks the early days of starting a company (or anything, for that matter)?

    In this sense, I no longer see startups as outlets for scientists to out-innovate each other, but what they are: businesses. And the ability to run a startup is just a long way of saying you know how to do business. In other words, you're a good businessman.

    This is an important realization for me because this word, "businessman", in particular, was one that would have had me see someone as "braindead" when first meeting them. I think many scientists/engineers share this sentiment. But now I find that 99% of what comprises entrepreneurial success is, unsurprisingly, entrepreneurial qualities. It seems trivially obvious in hindsight, but from what I've seen in the Bay Area, most technical founders, even those aged 30 and older, do not viscerally understand this until after their first or second company fails.

    In other words, I see now that innovation is not the cost of startup success, but the reward. Now that Facebook has tens of billions in cash reserves, it can pump money into moonshots like Oculus and CTRL-Labs knowing that it can pay for all that research and afford those risks, to a degree that even the biggest universities cannot. I believe Google outputs more computer science research than Stanford and Berkeley combined. Just ONE of Google's moonshot projects, Waymo, has been given more R&D funding in one year ($3B) than MIT gets for ALL its departments in several years ($1B/y). That is what Sergey Brin and Larry Page feel proud for when they put the kettle on to boil every morning of every day. That, is high leverage work.

    The requirements for getting to a point where the company is well enough endowed to innovate at all are simple to define: be an anomalously resourceful, charismatic person who can identify what is essential and what isn't, and act decisively and correctly in very high pressure, resource-constrained, systems. These are not necessarily, or indeed at all, the traits associated with "innovation" or "science", which are more to do with the creation of knowledge and tools, and require very different skill sets. Instead, these traits describe a good businessman. And, I would argue, also describe the legendary soldier-statesmen of eons past. Jobs, Gates and Caesar, Napoleon have more in common than it might seem.

    Put differently, business is modern warfare, and innovation is the prize.

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    The question I will attempt to answer in this piece is a simple one: what makes great institutions great? This refers to high schools, universities, big-corporates, sports teams, and even, say, royal dynasties. But the focus will be on educational institutions, informed, inevitably, by my experience at Westminster and the things I hear when talking to friends currently at Harvard. But the principles I derive apply to the Golden State Warriors as much as they do to MIT; to the Navy SEALs and Phillips Exeter Academy, in equal measure.

    Let me be explicitly clear; there are a few things that do not confer greatness upon an institution of learning. Wealth, for starters. Quality of facilities--of faculty, even. Connections. Brand name. All of these help, sure, but only a little bit. In my opinion, they don't really address the heart of what makes these legendary institutions capable of so routinely pumping out visionaries--the kind of people who are unafraid to mould history with their bare, gritty hands. It comes down to three things: peer-teaching, recalibrating expectations, and a sense of entitlement.

    Let's start with the first one. Groggy, at 1am one night snuggled up in your memory-foam mattress. You find yourself facing unblinking reflection on the laptop screen, YouTube tractoring on in the background. You're half-awake, blinking unthinkingly, watching "What do Harvard students like MOST about Harvard"? You hear one phrase, again and again. And then some more, pummelled mercilessly until stripped of its meaning. "The people".

    What exactly do they mean by this?

    I don't even think the Harvard students really know the answer to that. And that is that the most important learning that happens isn't the kind that happens in class or the lecture hall. That's a mere formality. A sham, if you will. At Harvard, the real learning happens in dorm rooms at 3am, when casual midnight chit-chat about the protests in Hong Kong might spiral into a lengthy argument with your roomate--who happens to be the leader of the 2014 Hong Kong student protests. The real learning happens when you're sitting down for lunch with a new girl you just met, exchanging pleasantries and small-talk, only to have to spend a few seconds after the conversation scanning the floor in silent ignominy after finding out that she cured a rare type of pancreatic cancer in high school. You learn about the economics of oncology-- something you had, quite literally, never spent a second thinking about--over budget meatballs and staling rice.

    These casual conversations add up. Years after you graduate, you forget how to derive Maxwell's equations and the characteristic themes of colonial literature. But you don't forget those meandering chats that left you stunned, and a little wiser. You collect and cherish these back-and-forths--no; hoarde them, as if they're rare gems glittering in the dust of your memory. You are right to do so, for these are the breakfast debates and seaside reflections that laid the seams for the person you grew up to become.

    But I think there's more to peer-education. Just as time relentlessly bites at your memory of Euclid's algorithm or understanding of consumer surplus, it eats away at the details that made those casual conversations so magical in the first place, too. That's alright, though, because the peer-education wasn't the most important part of your interactions with other students. And this gets at the core of what I believe really makes institutions great. They recalibrate your expectations. They take what you think and know and believe to be "normal" and "usual" and they beat it to the ground. They bruise and batter and dismantle and rewire, bit by bit, your expectations. By this, I mean that they make the sensational seem pedestrian. This is how top schools and universities become crucibles of greatness, furnaces that take bronze, smelt it and break it down, and forge it into something shinier and stronger. If Joshua Wang or David Hogg is your roommate, activism isn't so unique anymore. If you've seen Yo-Yo Ma drunk at a frat party, he's not a "prodigious musician" to you anymore, just another goofy friend. If you go out on a date with Malia Obama, celebrity appearances mean a little less to you. If the Fields-Medallist professor tries teaching abstract algebra using memes, legendary academic prizes no longer seem that esoteric.

    And I've felt this myself. At school in Abu Dhabi, if someone in the country--much less my high school--gets into Oxford or Stanford, it's instantly national news. Over time, I pattern-matched these students that won international olympiads and started nonprofits in high school as "prodigies". I put them in a bin in my head as genetically gifted, on a level I'd never reach no matter how hard I tried.

    And then, at Westminster, I saw them dancing at clubs and smoking in the park, groggy at breakfast and drifting asleep in lessons.

    Very quickly, I came to realise the secret. There are no "prodigies" and no-one is "genetically gifted". These boys and girls were humans, as much as I. Humans that broke into greatness through a combination of enormous ambition, unwavering discipline, and fortunate circumstance.

    In Abu Dhabi, being cross-admitted to Harvard and Trinity College, Cambridge, was a fantastical dream--one that I wouldn't have had the audacity to remotely entertain, even when alone at night, tossing and turning in bed. At Westminster, there's someone who does it every year (the guy in the grade above me with the same choice is a friend of mine, now also at Harvard). A step further: if you win a Rhodes Scholarship in Kansas, you've made history. You're instantly a local celebrity, the governer comes to your house to congratulate you. At Harvard? You get a copy-and-pasted email congratulating you--and of course, the other 6 that also won the scholarship (that year alone). I'm convinced it is this realisation being forcibly thrust upon students that makes them great. Understanding this fact means that you come to realise that there's really no reason that you can't be great, and that there's nothing special about those that are.

    And finally, members of elite institutions so often do great things because they are arrogant and entitled enough to believe they can. This is a corollary to the reason above, but is different enough for me to need to explain it as a separate point. When you go to Princeton or Eton, or work at McKinsey or Google, society instantly--incessantly--brands you as "elite". I don't think most people at these institutions inherently think they are any better than anyone else, but time and time again, people you meet will gasp in awe, mumble in jealousy, be stunned with shock, and tell you that you're now destined for greatness--that there's only so low you can go in life now, unthinkingly and repeatedly showering you with profligate amounts of praise.

    At first it's flattering. Gratifying, even. But over time, when family, friends, old class-mates, ex-girlfriends, and all of society is telling you that you are part of the hand-picked 0.01% that will change the world, it becomes easier and easier to believe them. And since "the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world are the ones who do", this is a positive feedback loop--a vicious cycle. You don't get that round of seed funding from Sequioa just because your startup is that good, it's also because they saw how convinced you were that you will succeed when you pitched to them, and liked your conviction. You don't get preferentially hired by Goldman because you're actually much smarter than the guy who went to Ohio State, but because you come across as so self-assured--bordering on arrogant--and entitled to success that they know you'll find a way to get it.

    All three of these reasons, together, come together to put elite institutions a hair above merely "excellent" ones. I'm confident that this is as true of the US Women's Soccer Team as it is of competitive Russian programmers and Korean e-sports whizzes. Look carefully, and you'll spot these factors at play everywhere, acting only to perpetuate inequality by helping one generation of winners hand-pick the next generation of winners in society. So the next time that people tell you that Cambridge or Facebook is an elite organisation because of its wealth and resources, or even the "network" it provides, know that they are letting on only a fraction of the real story.

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